Changes between Version 1 and Version 2 of TracStandalone

11/06/17 14:13:44 (6 years ago)



  • TracStandalone

    v1 v2  
    11= Tracd = 
    3 Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. In most cases it's easier to setup and runs faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI script]. 
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. 
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer. 
    56== Pros == 
    78 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server. 
    8  * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]). 
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default 
    910 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin). 
    1112== Cons == 
    13  * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache HTTPD. 
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd. 
    1415 * No native HTTPS support: [ sslwrap] can be used instead, 
    1516   or [ stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy. 
    2122 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project 
     24Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option. 
     26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project 
    2328With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/) 
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background. 
     43== Installing as a Windows Service == 
     45=== Option 1 === 
     46To install as a Windows service, get the [ SRVANY] utility and run: 
     48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe 
     49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\\" <your tracd parameters>" 
     50 net start tracd 
     53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}. 
     55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do: 
     57 sc config tracd start= auto 
     60The spacing here is important. 
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]] 
     66Three (string) parameters are provided: 
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ || 
     68||Application ||python.exe || 
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\ -p 8080 ... || 
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point. 
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.) 
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [ WINSERV] utility and run: 
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\ <your tracd parameters>" 
     79net start tracd 
     82=== Option 2 === 
     84Use [ WindowsServiceScript], available at [ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service. 
     86=== Option 3 === 
     88also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used: 
     90$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects' 
     91$ net start tracd 
    3694== Using Authentication == 
    38 Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. The default is to use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the examples below, and omit the realm. 
    40   ''Support for Basic authentication was added in version 0.9.'' 
    42 If the file `/path/to/users.htdigest` contains user accounts for project1 with the realm "", you'd use the following command-line to start tracd: 
    43 {{{ 
    44  $ tracd -p 8080 --auth project1,/path/to/users.htdigest, /path/to/project1 
    45 }}} 
    47 '''Note''': the project "name" passed to the `--auth` option is the base name of the project environment directory. 
    49 Of course, the digest file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project: 
     96Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line. 
     98The general format for using authentication is: 
     100 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path 
     103 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows: 
     104   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path` 
     105   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory 
     106 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows. 
     107 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file 
     108 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything) 
     109 * '''project_path''': path of the project 
     111 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name. 
    51116 $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
    52    --auth project1,/path/to/users.htdigest, \ 
    53    --auth project2,/path/to/users.htdigest, \ 
     117   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," /path/to/project1 
     120Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project: 
     122 $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
     123   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," \ 
     124   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile," \ 
    54125   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 
    57 Another way to share the digest file is to specify "*" 
    58 for the project name: 
     128Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name: 
    60130 $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
    61    --auth *,/path/to/users.htdigest, \ 
     131   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest," \ 
    62132   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 
    65 == How to set up an htdigest password file == 
     135=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file === 
     136This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files. 
     138  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to 
     139  decode the htpasswd format.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there 
     140  is no such package for Python 2.6. 
     142To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache): 
     144 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username 
     146then for additional users: 
     148 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2 
     151Then to start `tracd` run something like this: 
     153 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname 
     156For example: 
     158 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv 
     160''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD). 
     162=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file === 
    67164If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [ this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file. 
    69166Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error. 
    71 == Generating Passwords Without Apache == 
    73 If you don't have Apache available, you can use this simple Python script to generate your passwords: 
    75 {{{ 
     168=== Generating Passwords Without Apache === 
     170Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [ online HTTP Password generator].  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd ; Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5. 
     172You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file: 
    76176from optparse import OptionParser 
    77 import md5 
     177# The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5 
     179    from hashlib import md5 
     180except ImportError: 
     181    from md5 import md5 
     182realm = 'trac' 
    79184# build the options 
    84189parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string", 
    85190                  help="the password to use") 
     191parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string", 
     192                  help="the realm in which to create the digest") 
    86193(options, args) = parser.parse_args() 
    89196if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None): 
    90197   parser.error("You must supply both the username and password") 
     198if (options.realm is not None): 
     199   realm = options.realm 
    92201# Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file 
    93 realm = 'trac' 
    94 kd = lambda x: md5.md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest() 
     202kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest() 
    95203print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password]))) 
    98 Note: If you use the above script you must use the --auth option to tracd, not --basic-auth, and you must set the realm in the --auth value to 'trac' (without the quotes). Example usage (assuming you saved the script as 
    100 {{{ 
    101 python -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt 
    102 python tracd --port 8000 --auth proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name 
    103 }}} 
     206Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as 
     209 $ python -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt 
     210 $ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name 
     213==== Using `md5sum` 
     214It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file: 
     220echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file} 
     223== Reference == 
     225Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`): 
     227Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ... 
     230  --version             show program's version number and exit 
     231  -h, --help            show this help message and exit 
     232  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH 
     233                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm] 
     234  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH 
     235                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm] 
     236  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to 
     237  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME 
     238                        the host name or IP address to bind to 
     239  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi 
     240  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp) 
     241  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1 
     242  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default) 
     243  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR 
     244                        parent directory of the project environments 
     245  --base-path=BASE_PATH 
     246                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path" 
     247  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified 
     248  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list 
     249  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon 
     250  --pidfile=PIDFILE     When daemonizing, file to which to write pid 
     251  --umask=MASK          When daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in 
     252                        octal notation (default 022) 
     255Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started. 
    105257== Tips == 
    107259=== Serving static content === 
    109 If `tracd` is the only webserver used for the project,  
     261If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,  
    110262it can also be used to distribute static content  
    111263(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.) 
    116268Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file, 
    117269the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,  
    118 which in turn can be written using the relative link syntax 
    119 in the Wiki: `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]`  
    121 The development version of Trac supports a new `htdocs:` TracLinks  
    122 syntax for the above. With this, the example link above can be written simply  
    123 `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz`.  
     270which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).  
     272 ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10'' 
     274=== Using tracd behind a proxy 
     276In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server. 
     278In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects. 
     280If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter. 
     282See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe]. 
     284=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy 
     285It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using {{{--basic-auth}}}. There is some discussion about this in #9206. 
     287Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap. 
     289First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace. 
     292<Location /project/proxified> 
     293        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups, 
     294        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo 
     295        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/ 
     296        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all 
     297        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s 
     301Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory: 
     304from trac.core import * 
     305from trac.config import BoolOption 
     306from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator 
     308class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component): 
     310    implements(IAuthenticator) 
     312    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',  
     313               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins  
     314                (''since ??.??').""")  
     316    def authenticate(self, req): 
     317        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):  
     318            return req.get_header('Remote-User')  
     319        return None 
     323Add this new parameter to your TracIni: 
     328obey_remote_user_header = true 
     332Run tracd: 
     334tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified 
     337=== Serving a different base path than / === 
     338Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is 
     340 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path 
    126 See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide 
    128 ---- 
    129 '''Translation:''' 
    130  * [ Russian] (перевод на Русский) 
     344See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]